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Unit 4 was all about the different types of present tense. In the tense system, there are 12 types. The main categories are past, present, and future; but these can be broken down further into simple, continuous, perfect, and perfect continuous. The unit then goes through each type of present tense and describes the forms, usage, common student errors, and teaching ideas for the activate stage of ESA. Present simple is the subject plus the base form sometimes with s/es. This form is used for habitual/routine actions, newspaper headlines, historical sequences, etc. Present continuous is the combination of the present simple tense of the auxiliary verb to be and the present participle of the main verb. The usages for this tense are actions in progression at the time, temporary action, to emphasize frequent actions, etc. Present perfect relates the past to the present. This is done by combining the subject with the aux. verb have and the past participle. This tense is used to talk about finished actions/state at an indefinite time, completed past actions carried out in an unfinished time period at the time, etc. Finally, present perfect continuous tense relates past actions to present time. This is formed by combining the subject with the auxiliary verb have plus been and the verb ending in ing. This tense is used for incomplete actions or ongoing actions, and recently finished/uninterrupted actions with present results.