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This unit has shown the differences in present tenses. It has also shown how the tenses are formed and in which situations they are typically used. These tenses are the present simple, the present perfect, the present continuous and the present perfect continuous. The present simple tense can be used when one is stating an event or activity that happens routinely e.g. I wake up at five o'clock every morning. It is formed using subject + verb ( if in the affirmative context) The present perfect can be used to express an action that has happened e.g. The guests have just arrived. The formation of this form uses the subject + have/has + past tense of the verb. The present continuous tense can be used for an event that is currently taking place or for events that are unfolding e.g. climate change is contributing to the poor crop yields. The formations takes subject + am/is/are + verb ending with '-ing.' The present perfect continuous can be used to express an action that has been taking place from a certain time, even to date, relating the past with the present. e.g. we have known this man since he was a young lad. Formation of this tense takes subject + auxilliary verb + past tense of the verb. Usually \"for\" or \"since\" are used to indicate the time period. The use of these present tenses can be confusing, but with practice, and using creative activities such as those provided in the unit, learners can come to understand where to use which tense.