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Past Tenses Past Simple tense Usage: to express completed actions in the past. For regular verbs add 'ed' to the base form to indicate the past. Irregular verbs: The verb 'to be' is the only irregular verb to have 2 forms, was and were. All other irregualar verbs the form stays the same. go - went, swim - swam, buy - bought, tell - told, hide - hid. Affirmative. subject + verb (past simple) Examples. I walked. They went. Negative. subject + aux.verb 'did' + not + verb Examples. I did not walk. They did not go. ('went' changes to 'go' as the aux verb 'did' indicates the past). Question. aux.verb 'did' + subject + verb Examples. Did I walk? Did they go? Activate teaching ideas: Interview role play: have students ask eachother questions related to what they did the previous day at various times. What did you do at 8am yesterday? expected answers I went shopping. I brushed my teeth. Currculum vitae exercise. draw up a cv indicating past activities. memory card game to assist learning irregular verbs, pair present tense to past simple, tell-told, go-went. Past Continuous Tense Usages: to express interrupted past actions, actions without a time expression, gradual development that happened in the past, action that was in progress at a particular time in the past. Affirmative. subject + aux.verb was/were + verb+ing example: I was washing, they were washing. Negative. subject + aux.verb 'was/were' + not + verb+ing example. I was not washing, they were not washing. Question. aux.verb 'was/were' + subject + verb+ing example. Were they washing? Was I washing? Activate teaching ideas: Gap fills, have the students fill in the gaps He ____________ _____________ when the door opened. They ___________ _____________ when the bell rang. Story telling using visual prompts. Detective game: ask questions, students ask eachother students about what they were doing yesterday at specific times. I was having lunch with a friend. Past Perfect Affirmative: subject + aux.verb 'had' + past participle example: Ben had cooked ... Negative: subject + aux.verb 'had' + not + past participle example: Ben had not cooked ... Question: ux.verb 'had' + subject + past participle example: Had Ben cooked ... ? Usage: used to talk about a past action and a related past action before that. relating 2 past actions to eachother. When two actions in the past have to be referred to, the past perfect should be used for the earlier action, and the simple past for the later one. example: He had started his work after I finished cleaning. Activate stage ideas: Give students a final situation and ask them to come up with reasons why that happened, visual promtps. for example: Final Situation - she arrived dirty at the dance Reason - she had slipped in a puddle before arriving. Past perfect continuous : expresses an action in the past that was ongoing up to the past moment we are referring to. The past perfect continuous corresponds to the present perfect continuous, but with reference to a time earlier than 'before now'. As with the present perfect continuous, we are more interested in the process. affirmative form: subject + aux.verb 'had' + aux.verb 'been' + verb+ing They had been playing.... Negative form subject + aux.verb 'had' + not + aux.verb 'been' + verb+ing They had not been playing Question form aux.verb 'had' + subject + aux.verb 'been' + verb+ing Had they been playing ..? Usage: Reported speech. Emily said, \"I have been studying all afternoon.\" = Emily said she had been studying all afternoon. When the police questioned him, John told them he had been working late in the office that night. Activate teaching ideas: How Long? Write several lengths of time on small slips of paper (one year, two weeks, six month, ten minutes, etc.). Each person takes a turn drawing a card and then shares what they had been doing for that length of time before any other event. For example, a student who draws two years might say, ?I had been studying English for two years before coming to the U.K.?