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Unit 12 zooms in on teaching productive skills ? speaking and writing. When teaching these skills one can distinguish between activities focused on improving accuracy and activities focused on improving fluency. Accuracy activities are usually a part of the Study phase and are concentrated on producing correct language. Fluency activities are usually a part of the Activate phase and are concentrated on encouraging the students to communicate freely and effectively. Speaking activities can be divided in three categories: 1) Controlled activities - Such as drilling exercises (3x3) and prompting 2) Guided activiteis ? Such as model dialogues and guided role-plays 3) Creative communication ? Such as free role-play; discussions; information gap activities; debates; simulations and communication games. When practicing writing skills a number of factors need to be considered: 1) Handwriting ? Students whose native language uses a different alphabet than the English ABC can have difficulty with writing the letters 2) Spelling ? As English is not a phonetic language similar sounds can be written in different ways. For example, waist and waste, their and there etc. Then there is also the difference between spoken language (e.g. can?t) and written language (e.g. cannot) and between British English and American English (colour/color). This can be quite confusing for students. 3) Layout and punctuation ? Rules for this can differ greatly from what students are used to in their native language. 4) Creative writing ? Encourage creative writing and make sure to choose topics that interest the students.