Teach English in ZhijiAng Xilu Jiedao - Shanghai Shi

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Multiple IntelligencesAs long as we?ve been adapting as a species, we?ve been learning. As soon as we learned valuable survival skills, we taught them to our descendants. The art of teaching is about as old as the human species, and has evolved as surely as we have into the vast variety of teaching methods and philosophies available to us today. Up until recently, intelligence in the Western World was viewed as an asset acquired through constant education, involving endless memorization and repetition. For centuries since the development of academic institutions, students in a class were taught as though they all learned using the same methods. In recent years, we have become aware of the diversity of classrooms, particularly in they way individual students learn and retain information. This relatively new knowledge now requires us to diversify teaching methods. A notable milestone in this evolution is the theory of multiple intelligences, as was described by developmental psychologist and Harvard professor Howard Gardner in 1983. His theory expresses intelligence as a quotient of separate aptitudes as opposed to the singular, general mental gift we once regarded it. In the theory of multiple intelligences, Gardner partitioned intellectual ability into nine different categories referred to as modalities. The criteria for distinguishing each modality includes parameters like the existence of exceptional ability in each modality (as with savants and prodigies), potential for isolation of each modality by brain damage, and a distinctive developmental progression. The modalities are described as follows: Logical-mathematical ? This is associated with strength in logic and reasoning, especially having to do with numbers. Although the name suggests an obvious talent in arithmetic, it is more appropriately described by skill in recognizing patterns, scientific thinking and problems of reason. Spatial ? This describes an aptitude for spatial judgment, and visualization, talents often attributed to visual artists and architects. Linguistic - As the name suggests, this modality involves talent with words, both in speech and writing. It is identified by notable skill with language, including reading, writing, and memorization of words. Bodily-kinesthetic ? This modality is associated with extraordinary body awareness and control. Exceptional athleticism is a common sign of this kind of intelligence, and also suggests a firmer grasp of timing, movement through different physical spaces, and enables facility in an activity such as dancing. Musical ? Traditionally an indicator of intelligence, aptitude in music includes an exceptional understanding of different sounds, beats, pitches, etc. Interpersonal ? Referring to communicating and sharing with others, people with interpersonal intelligence demonstrate more ease interacting and socializing. Intrapersonal ? Intrapersonal intelligence describes a gift in understanding your own personal abilities, and a sensitivity to your role in the context of society. Naturalistic ? This describes a connection to natural surroundings, and includes talents such as gardening and preservation. Existential ? Tempted by some to be labeled as ?spiritual? or ?religious? intelligence, existential intelligence suggests exceptional abilities concerning the understanding of the intangible experience of man. Many priests, philosophers, and physicists have been attributed this kind of intelligence. This discovery of different intelligences prompted Gardner to theorize that certain students doing poorly in school may not have received exercise or teaching in the manner that they would most respond to or be most stimulated by. People with bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are said to learn better when associating skills with movement or physical activity. Musicians respond better to sound, and typically do well learning from lectures, or when patterns are involved. With this new information, teachers can better prepare for the diversity of the classroom. Students can be better placed in classes appropriate to their varying strengths and weaknesses. New teaching and learning philosophies continue to evolve as we discover new approaches to triggering learning, experience, and application of information and skills.