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Motivation in the classroomThe definition of motivation is the incentive someone has that impels them to do something. It is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. Therefore, motivation is the key to all learning. There are two types of motivation, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation comes from within the student. It is driven by an interest or enjoyment of the task itself and does not rely on external pressure. It occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant. Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: ? Can actually do something about the results. (Not just a question of luck) ? Recognize that the result depends on their actions. This means that they can see that if they put more effort in the results will be better. ? Have a reason for learning that specific topic other than rote-learning. I.e. they want to master the topic. But because students are not always internally motivated, they sometimes need external motivation, which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates this is called extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation comes from the outside. This is when a student performs in order to receive a reward like money or a good grade. It is also when a student performs so as to avoid a punishment. This kind of motivation can come from competition or a game. Both types of motivation are useful for teaching and should be encouraged. Extrinsic motivation is easier to cultivate and can lead to intrinsic motivation. However intrinsic motivation is, of course, the preferred as extrinsic motivation does not have the same long lasting results. For example, a student who is doing something because it interests them is far more likely to complete the task thoroughly and even do extra work; whereas a student who is set a goal so as to obtain a reward, will work until he or she gains the reward and then stop; they will not have the motivation to do further work. There are a few ways teachers can cultivate motivation, some are: ? Lowering stress: Motivation is better cultivated by lowering the students stress. If the student feels stressed they will not want to participate and will focus on themselves rather than on the lesson. ? Making the lessons interesting: lessons that are varied and fun will keep the student?s interest high. Games and tasks are useful for this and will help the students see an objective to what they are doing. ? Personalizing the lesson: if the teacher tailors the lessons to the students interests they will appeal to their intrinsic motivation. Once the student sees a link to something they feel is important they will went to get involved more. ? Making the layout of the course clear: there is nothing more discouraging than not seeing the point in learning what you are being taught. The teacher must be careful to make the lesson plan clear so the student can see where they are heading and follow their own progress. ? Set the level to suit the students: if the lesson is not adapted to the students they will either get bored (if the lessons are too easy) or be discouraged (if the lessons are too hard and the tasks unattainable). ? Being motivated: motivation is contagious. If the teacher is positive and excited about what they?re teaching the students will follow their example. ? Praise the students: a student that feels appreciated will be more confident and more impelled to make the effort. ? Have good rapport with the students: if the students feel close to their teacher they will feel motivated to please them and give something back. There are many other ways to create both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and all can and should be used. In conclusion, we can see that motivation plays a key role in the learning process. It is therefore an essential part of teaching profession; teachers must work at stimulating motivation and strive to keep any motivation that the students have.