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Unit 12 covered productive skills - speaking and writing. When teaching speaking and writing skills it's important to create a need or desire in the students to communicate. Use situations which the students are likely to encounter, or have them produce creative works which they are interested in. During the study phase, focus on accuracy (correct use of language) using controlled activities. During the activate stage, focus on fluency (students ability to speak without stopping to think), using creative communication such as role play and communication games. Encouraging students to speak can be difficult. The teacher should create a friendly and relaxed, comfortable environment for the students. Don't focus too much on students mistakes outside of the study phase as it often discourages them from trying. Group work and pair work, even for writing, is a great way to take pressure off of the students and create a more comfortable environment.