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In unitn13 I have learned about pronunciation and phonology. Phonology is the study, science, analysis and classification of the physical properties of sound. I have also learned that intonation is considered to be thr variation in volume and pitch in a while sentence, whereas stress is more concerned with individual words. Techniques for indicating and teaching intonation can be by nonsense words, by gesture while the teacher speaks, humming, singing or using arrows on the board to indicate thr direction of the intonation. Teaching techniques for stress can be contrastive stress, by gestures like clapping, choral work or by underlining or using stress marks on the board. In English, sounds join together by linking, sound dtopping, sound changing or by extra lettering. The phonemic alphabet is universal and can be used to show which sounds to use. It can be useful for the students to be aware of how they make each sound. The teacher can use different techniques for teaching pronunciation of individual sounds. The teacher can over- emphasise individual parts of the word, draw a diagram of the mouth showing how a particular sound is made, use phonemes, tounge twisters or peer dictation.