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Unit 18 introduces modal auxiliary verbs (can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, have to, have got to, need to, needn?t, ought to, etc.). Modal verbs are used before other verbs to add or adjust the meaning of the verb and are often used to express obligation, formality, possibility/probability, permission/prohibition, ability, and advice. As a native English speaker, I intuitively understand the difference between the uses and meanings of present/future auxiliary verbs and the uses and meanings of past auxiliary verbs, but I anticipate this being a complex, nuanced lesson for EFL students. The unit?s examples featuring comparisons of very similar sentences (but varying in meaning) will be useful to me in the future. After modal verbs, the unit details the form and use of the passive voice. In the passive voice, the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. In an active voice the focus is on the agent, but in a passive voice the focus is on the subject. Next, I learned about the differences between independent, dependent, and relative clauses. A relative clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun and describes, identifies, or gives further information about that noun. There are defining and non-defining relative clauses, depending on whether the information is essential to the meaning of the sentence or is simply extra information. As a big fan of commas, I appreciated the clear delineation between how defining and non-defining relative clauses are presented in written English! The unit concludes with an examination of phrasal verbs, which consist of a verb plus two or one particles. There are three types of phrasal verbs: intransitive, transitive separable, and transitive inseparable. The types are differentiated more or less by the location of the particles in the phrase/sentence. I expect all of these concepts will be challenging for English students, and I appreciate the unit?s advice to introduce these ideas gradually and casually to first familiarize a class with their use before reviewing the technical rules.