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This unit covered the remaining grammar topics of the course: modal verbs, phrasal verbs, the passive voice, and relative clauses. Modal auxiliary verbs are used before the main verb and add meaning to it. They can be used to express obligation, possibility, permission, ability, and advice. They can also determine how formal or informal a sentence sounds. Modal verbs don?t change form according to person, and they are always followed by the main verb in its base form. Ways to practice modal verbs include role play, talking about rules and regulations, and restrictive signs. The passive voice is the opposite of the active voice and is used when the actor or agent is not important or unknown. Only verbs followed by an object (transitive) can be used in the passive. The passive can be used in any tense except for the perfect continuous. The form is the auxiliary verb ?be? in any tense followed by the past participle. Teaching ideas include matching active/passive sentences and writing quizzes. There are three types of clauses: independent, dependent and relative. A relative clause is a type of dependent clause that identifies or gives extra information about a noun. Relative clauses are either defining or non-defining. A defining clause includes information that is essential to the meaning of the sentence. A non-defining relative clause can be removed from the sentence without changing the main meaning of the sentence. Relative pronouns in a defining clause can be left out when they refer to the object. Non-defining relative clauses always require a relative pronoun, and ?that? cannot be used. A phrasal verb is a verb followed by one or more prepositions or adverbs. Intransitive phrasal verbs are not followed by a direct object. Transitive separable phrasal verbs take an object, and that object can be placed before or after the preposition when it is a noun. Transitive inseparable phrasal verbs take an object but the object can only be placed after the preposition/adverb. Phrasal verbs can be very difficult for students because a change of preposition completely changes the meaning of the verb. They should be taught like vocabulary words and used naturally in speech by the teacher.