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Unit 18 focused on a few different ideas in English grammar. It started with modal auxiliary verbs. ?Modals? are: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, much, have to, have got to, need to, needn?t, and ought to. These are used before the other verbs to add meaning to the main verb. They are used to express obligation, possibility/probability, permission/prohibition, ability, and advice. They can also be used to express degrees of formality. Next, passive voice was covered. There are two types of voice in English: passive and active. Active focuses on the agent, while passive focuses on the subject. In passive voice, the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. Only transitive verbs can be used in the passive voice. For active and passive voice the tense remains the same in the sentence. Passive voice is used when who performs the action is not known, not important, or we don?t want to say exactly who is performing the action. The unit gives common errors and teaching ideas for passive voice. After passive voice, relative clauses were explained. A clause is a group of words containing a subject and verb. There are three types of clauses: independent, dependent, and relative. A relative clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It describes, identifies, or give further information about the noun. A relative clause is often introduced by a relative pronoun. There are two types of relative clauses: defining and non-defining. Defining relative clauses contain information that is essential to the meaning of the sentence, while non-defining clauses contain information that is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. The unit ended with phrasal verbs. These are verbs consisting of a verb plus one or two particles. There are three types of phrasal verbs: intransitive, transitive separable, and transitive inseparable. Intransitive cannot be followed by a direct object. For transitive separable phrasal verbs, the object pronoun can only come between the verb and the particle and the object noun can come either between he verb and the particle or after the particle. Finally, for transitive inseparable phrasal verbs, the object phrase or object pronoun both come after the particle. This type is often used for phrasal verbs that have two particles.