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Grammatically, modal auxiliary verbs are unique because they do not change form the way other verbs do when used in the in first, second, or third person, and they are followed by a second verb in its base form. Functionally, modal verbs add meaning to the verb that follows and are used commonly to express obligation, probability/possibility, permission/prohibition, ability, and advice, as well as to indicate different degrees of formality in different situations. They are identifiable by their lack of conjugation when the subject changes and by what they express (mainly suggestions, possibilities, ability, preference, degree of certainty, obligation, or formality). A passive voice and an active voice are two techniques that can say the same message. An active voice plainly shows that a subject acting on an object, for example, \"I cleaned the house.\" To say the same thing in a passive voice takes the focus of a sentence off of the subject and onto the object, making the object the subject instead but leaving the agent of the action unknown or unclear, for example in the sentence\"The house was cleaned,\" the house (originally the object) became the subject, but the person who cleaned it is not acknowledged. The passive voice is used mostly in situations where the agent of change or action is unknown, unimportant, or superfluous information. A clause is a purposive group of words containing and subject and a verb, and there are three types - independent, which contains a subject and verb and functions as a complete sentence; dependent, which must be connected to an independent clause to function as a sentence; and relative, which commonly use a relative pronoun such as \"who, which, that, whom, etc.\" followed by information that modifies a noun or subject. If a relative clause contains information essential to the meaning of the sentence, it is called a defining relative clause, but if it provides no essential information, it is called a non-defining relative clause. Last, phrasal verbs are verbs that combine with one or two particles (an adverb, a preposition, or both) to convey specific meaning. Phrasal verbs like \"turn up, tell off, get over, put up with, or take on,\" fall into two categories - the first, intransitive, means the phrasal verb cannot be followed directly by an object, while the second type, transitive, means that an object noun or pronoun can follow the verb directly before the article/s, or if it is a direct object noun, can follow after the verb and article combination.