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Unit 6 presents the three English past tenses : Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous. Past Simple is used for actions that have already completed. Past Continuous actions that started but are still not completed. Past Perfect Actions are used that started and ended before another action. Past Perfect Continuous are used for actions that took place until another action happened. The principles used in the present tense are used past and future tenses with respect to perfect and perfect continuous forms. Perfect tenses always use the verb 'to have' and the past participle of another verb. If the 'to have' part is in the present the form present perfect, if 'to have' part is on the past the form is past perfect. The same principle applies to future tenses as well. Perfect continuous forms use the verb 'to have', plus 'been', plus the 'ing' form of the verb. If the 'to have' part is in the present the form present perfect continuous, if 'to have' part is on the past the form is past perfect continuous. The same principle applies to future tenses as well. The Past Simple tense adds ed or d to regular verbs for actions that completed at a definite time in the past. Most mistakes with this tense arise from the use of did and did not for questions and negatives, and use of irregular verbs. The pattern of past continuous is 'subject + was/were + [not] + verb+ing'. (the negative version includes not at the point indicated). The interrogative form is 'was/were + subject + verb+ing'. Past Continuous is used for interrupted past actions or to indicate gradual development that took place in the past. Typical student mistakes are omission of the 'to be' or 'ing' part, use of 'ing' with state verbs. The pattern of past perfect is 'subject + had + [not] + past participle'. (the negative version includes not at the point indicated). The interrogative form is 'had + subject + past participle'. Past Perfect is used to represent actions that occurred before other actions in the past. A good way to teach this tense is to have students read a story and then retell the story backwards. The pattern of past perfect continuous is 'subject + had + [not] + been + verb+ing'. (the negative version includes not at the point indicated). The interrogative form is 'had + subject + been + verb+ing'. Past perfect continuous is used to talk about situations in the past that had been going on continuously up to the past moment that we are thinking about. Most mistakes with this tense are omission of either one of the auxiliary verb 'had' or 'been' or failing to add 'ing' to the main form.