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Unit 18 reviewed the topics of Modal Auxiliary Verbs, Passive & Active Voice, Phrasal Verbs, and Relative Clauses. Modal auxiliary verbs (also referred to as helping verbs) are used with another verb to express mood or tense. There are nine auxiliary verbs: can, could, will, would, should, shall, might, may and must. There are a number of usages in expression for example: ability, advice, deduction, obligation, offer, permission, possibility, prediction, prohibition, promise and request. The use of modal verbs can change the formality and meaning of the main verb. E.g Where is Ruth? She must have left, she might have left, she had to leave. Role play is a suitable teaching idea for modal auxiliary verbs due to the variety used in every day communication. (e.g. doctor/patient, parent/child to express advice and obligation, ) Other teaching ideas include Rules e.g. hotel rules to communicate prohibition, permission and obligation. There are two voices used in English - Active and Passive. In the passive voice, the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. Both sentences essentially mean the same thing but the focus is different. The active voice is the most common voice used, and it describes the subject actually doing the action. For example: She ate the sandwich. / He's taking part in the competition. The passive voice describes a verb 'being happened' to the subject of the sentence, rather than the subject carrying it out. In this way, the action is said to be ?passive?. For example: The sandwich was eaten by the girl. / The bird was caught by the cat. A phrasal verb is a type of compound verb made up of a verb and a prepositional adverb -a phrase (such as take off or look down on) that combines a verb with a preposition or adverb or both and that functions as a verb whose meaning is different from the combined meanings of the individual words. There are three types of phrasal verbs ? Intransitive, Transitive separable and Transitive inseparable. Phrasal verbs can be very difficult for students to understand, and are often best learned as vocabulary items and used naturally during uncontrolled practice and conversation. A relative clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb. There are three categories of clauses: The first is an Independent clause which is a complete sentence containing the main subject and verb. Secondly, a Dependent clause which is not a complete sentence and must be connected to an independent clause, and finally a Relative clause which is a dependent clause that modifies and describes a noun. It can also be referred to as an adjective clause.