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Modal Auxiliary Verbs Basic rules: The ' modals' are: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, have to, have got to, need to, needn't and ought to. Modals can be used to express a number of different ideas, such as: Obligation, Possibility/ probability, Permission/ prohibition, Ability and Advice. Modal auxiliary verbs can also be used to express differing degrees of formality, modal verbs don't change in form according to person, modal verbs are followed by a verb in its base form- I might go. Teaching ideas: role-play, rules, sighs Passive voice: In the passive, the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. Both sentences basically have the same meaning, but the focus is different. Only transitive verbs ( verbs followed by an object, such as sell, take, buy, write, etc.) are used in the passive. Form: Auxiliary verb 'be' + past participle Usage: The passive is most frequently used when it is not known, not important, or we don't want to say, exactly who performs an action. The passive may be used with a by phrase when the speaker or writer wants the listener or reader to know who performs the action. Teaching ideas: Cutting up varied active/ passive sentences and getting students to match them; Students write a general knowledge quiz using passive examples. Relative Clauses: A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb There are three categories of clauses: Independent clause: An independent clause is a complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of a sentence. Dependent clause: A dependent clause is not a complete sentence. It must be connected to an independent clause. Relative clause: A relative clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It describes, identifies, or gives further information about a noun. It can also be referred to as adjective clause. A relative clause is introduced by a relative pronoun: who, which, that, whose, whom, etc or there may be no relative pronoun. There are two types of relative clauses defining and non-defining.The Information given in a defining relative clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence. The information given in a non-defining relative clause is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Phrasal Verbs phrasal verbs, or multi-word, consist of a verb plus one or two particles.They are three basic types of phrasal verbs: Type one- Intransitive: Intransitive phrasal verbs cannot be followed by a direct object Type two- Transitive separable: With type two phrasal verbs an object pronoun can only come between the verb and the particle Type three- Transitive inseparable: With this type of phrasal verb, the object phrase or object pronoun both come after the particle.