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This unit contains the most commonly needed areas of grammar which will be useful not only for teaching the students but also to brush up our grammatical knowledge. I feel Grammar is the backbone of a language ,it provides us with the structure we need in order to organize and put our messages and ideas across. By learning this unit, I learnt the underlying grammar patterns and structures of the language without which we cannot convey our ideas to their full extension. Parts of speech: 1. Nouns: This part of speech refers to words that are used to name persons, things, animals, places, things, qualities, states.eg: My best friend is Zara There are many different kinds of Nouns : a. Common: (no Capital letters) road, car, TV series . b. Proper: (Capital letters) Ted, America, Neptune. c. Compound: (two nouns combined to make a new noun) bookshelf, textbook, sunshine d. Abstract: (qualities we cannot touch) sadness, love, hate. e. Collective: It is a group of persons, animals, or things. Example: faculty (group of teachers), class (group of students), pride group of lions) Plural : more than one .They always have S at the end. But there are certain rules few of them are listed below: family-families watch-watches ant-ants leaf-leaves goose-geese Countable noun: Things that can be counted and has a singular and plural form. Example: kitten, video, ball Uncountable noun: Things that cannot be counted . Example: hair, air, wheat. 2. Adjectives: This part of speech is used to describe a noun or a pronoun. Example: My teacher is dark and handsome. a. Compartative: Linda is more beautiful than Sara. b. Superlative: I am the oldest in my family . 3. Articles: There are 2 types of articles : Definite : (the) and Indefinite : (a,an). (The) is added in front of the consonant and (a ,an) is added in front of vowel Example: the door,the cat,the house. An Apple,an umbrella,a ball,a pencil. 4. Verbs: A verb expresses action .It is a doing word. Example : walk, sleep, hit etc. All verbs are Transitive : Verb that follows directly by an object or Intransitive: Verb that cannot be followed by an object. There are many forms of verbs and this unit explains it in detail. 5. Adverbs: An adverb modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Example: gently, carefully, extremely. Also Adverb has many different types that are well explained in the course book. 6. Gerunds: A gerund is used in the same way as noun. Usually the verb ends with ?ing? . Example : Swimming is fun . Swimming is gerund. 7.Pronouns:These are words that are used in place of a noun Personal : I,me,she,her,he,him etc Possessive: hers,his,mine,ours,theirs etc. Reflexive: herself,himself,ourself etc Relative: who,whoes,that etc. 8.Preposition : This part of a speech basically refers to words that specify location or a location in time. Examples of Prepositions: above, below, throughout, outside, before, near, and since example: Mary is hiding under the bed. 9.Conjunction: The conjunction is a part of a speech which joins words, phrases, or clauses together. Examples of Conjunctions: and, yet, but, for, nor, or, and so. This cup of tea is delicious and very soothing.