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This unit covered the topics of pronunciation and phonology. While often overlooked in the classroom, these topics are worth spending some time on, as they are important factors in understanding spoken English. In basic terms, phonology refers to the study of sounds. This can refer both to the sound of individual words, referred to as stress, or to a sentence as a whole, referred to as intonation. The general pattern for statements is a rising intonation, followed by a falling intonation. For questions, or statements that the speaker wishes to gain the listener?s input, a rising intonation is used at the end of the sentence. Understanding these differences can help students communicate more effectively. In some sentences, certain words may be stressed in order to convey a particular meaning. One sentence can have multiple interpretations based on which word or words are stressed. In addition, individual words may have one syllable that receives more stress than others. Learning which syllable receives stress can help students sound more natural when speaking. This unit also contained information related to the production of sound, and the different areas which contribute to different sounds. This was useful, as having a greater understanding of how various sounds are made can in turn be used to more effectively teach these differences to students.