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The parts of speech is the classification of each word in a sentence. Each word has a purpose and meaning. As was mentioned, no rule is set in stone but the basic construction of a sentence should be the same. There's the subject, the verb, and the object. The subject is the doer of the action which is the noun (or pronoun), the verb is the action word and the object is whom or which the action is applied to. Then you can add the articles (indefinite a, an and definite the), the adjective which describes or modifies the noun (you can put several adjectives in a sentence in the order of size-age-color-material and then the noun), the adverb (which describes the way the verb is or was done), the prepositions (which shows the relationship between a noun and other words in the sentence), the gerunds (where verbs can be the subject or object) and conjunctions (which joins words or groups in a sentence). The parts of speech alone is such a vast subject that I believe it will take time before the whole topic is covered.