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The productive skills are speaking and writing. These are the skills that require students to produce language for some kind of communicative purpose. Students can practice productive skills with accuracy activities (which require them to practice using the language correctly in a controlled setting) and fluency activities (which focus on using the language effectively and with a fluent flow). Students may be hesitant to participate in productive activities if they are uncomfortable with taking risks or making mistakes. Teachers should help encourage students to participate by allowing them to practice in low risk situations before asking them to participate in free speaking or creative writing activities. Low risk activities may include drilling as a group, pre-written dialogue or prompting exercises, working in pairs, having time to prepare individually before presenting, etc. Teachers may also utilize games to engage students and give them a purpose for communicating about a specific topic. In teaching writing, in addition to vocabulary and grammar, teachers must also consider helping students to learn handwriting, spelling, punctuation, and layout standards.