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In this unit I studied the five main conditionals and the formation and usages of reported speech. The zero conditional is used to talk about actions and facts that are irrefutable. The first conditional is used to talk about real situations in the future that are possible, probable, or certain once the condition has been satisfied. The second conditional is used to convey a present or future unreal, hypothetical situation that is presently not true and unlikely to ever be true. The third conditional talks about a hypothetical past action or non-action and the hypothetical past consequence or result. Finally, the mixed conditional, as the name suggests, is a combination of the second and third conditionals and refers to a hypothetical past action or state and the hypothetical present consequence. As for reported speech, in most cases the tenses are backshifted, usually from present tenses to past tenses, and sometimes also into past perfect tenses. Time expressions are also modified if backshifting ('tomorrow' becomes 'today', etc). Reported speech in particular can be challenging for students given the number of changes in tenses, patterns, etc, so this is an area that may require extensive practice.