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The unit focused on two different grammatical topics: conditional and direct/reported speech. The conditional sections outlined the 5 types of conditionals: zero, first, second, third, and mixed. The zero conditional used the present tense in both the conditional and main clause. This conditional is used to state absolute facts that occur as a result of another absolute fact. The first conditional is formed using the present simple in the conditional and \"will\" in the main clause. This conditional is used to talk about future events that are possible or guaranteed based on the conditional. The second conditional is formed the past simple in the conditional clause and the modal verb would/could/might with a base verb. This conditional is used to discuss hypothetical outcomes. The third conditional is formed using the past perfect in the conditional clause and the modal verb could/would/might with the modal have and a past participle. This condition is used to discuss hypothetical pasts causing unrealized hypothetical outcomes. The final conditional is the mixed conditional and it is formed by mixing tenses in a conditional that doesn't apply to the zero, 1st, 2nd or 3rd conditionals. The most common formed by the past perfect in the conditional and the modal verb would with a base form. This is used to describe hypothetical past actions with hypothetical present results. The second half of the unit discussed direct speech vs reported speech. The former is the most common, when we're simply speaking or conversing in the present. Reported speech is used when repeating or reporting what someone said to another person at a later time. In reported speech, the subject pronoun naturally changes according to the speaker and the tense of the verb typical \"steps back\" one tense (ei present simple -> past simple or past simple to past perfect). In addition to the tense change, object pronouns might need to be specified or changed. Also, if a time reference is given, it must change to fit with the time frame of the tense. (ei tomorrow becomes the following day and yesterday becomes the day before)