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This unit focuses on teaching new vocabulary and grammar structures. When selecting vocabulary for teaching, we have to keep in mind how often it is used and how important is it. Whether it is suitable for the students level and also how appropriate it is to the task that is given to the students. When teaching vocabulary, students need to know the spellings and pronunciation of it and also the meaning. They need to know how to construct it in a sentence and how it affects the other words. For grammatical structures, students need to know the meaning and how/ when to use it in a sentence. Also, if there is any difference between the written and spoken form for e.g. 'I want to go to the park' often becomes 'I wanna go to the park' in spoken English. To teach vocabulary and grammatical structures, teachers can make use of the ESA methodology. These can be taught using straight arrow ESA, boomerang ESA and patchwork ESA. A teacher needs to think about the level of the class and the new language that will be introduced in order to think about which ESA method to apply.