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Unit 16 - Conditionals & Reported Speech: grammar Conditionals: These are sentences containing ?if? (?when?) which refer to the past, present or future possibilities. The five main conditionals are the follows: ? Zero conditional: if/when + present tense, present tense. It refers to actions and facts that are irrefutable. Example ? water turns to ice if you freeze it. ? First conditional: if + present simple, will. (WILL can be replaced by a model verb ? MAY, MIGHT, CAN, SHOULD, MUST). This talks about a real situation in the future that is possible or even certain. Example ? if he studies hard, he will pass the exam. ? Second conditional: if + past simple, would/could/might + base form. This is the hypothetical situation in the future. Example ? if I won a lottery, I would travel the world. ? Third conditional: if + past perfect, would/could/might + have + past participle. This is the hypothetical situation in the past. Example ? if I had practiced the piano, I would have been better (but I didn?t practice the piano!). ? Mixed conditional: if + past perfect, would + base form. The mix refers to a hypothetical past action and the hypothetical presence consequence. Example ? if I had listened to him, I would be in a serious trouble now. Teaching ideas: ? Split sentences ? Complete the conditional ? Chain conditionals ? What a question! ? Nuclear bunker role play ? What would happen if?? Reported speech and direct speech: All sentences in the conversation between people ? direct speech. Sentence addressed by the first person to the second person where he reports what the third person has told him ? reported/indirect speech. If there is no question word, IF or WHETHER must be used: ?Is anyone there?? he asked. Becomes - he asked if/whether anyone was there. Verbs tenses: Direct speech ? reported speech ? Present simple ? past simple ? Present continuous ? past continuous ? Present perfect ? past perfect ? Present perfect continuous ? past perfect continuous ? Past simple ? past perfect ? Past continuous ? past perfect continuous ? Will ? would ? Past perfect ? past perfect ? Past perfect continuous ? past perfect continuous Pronouns: Pronoun also can change, depending on the context. Time expressions: These are also modified if backshifting. ? Today ? that day ? Yesterday ? the day before / the previous day ? Tomorrow ? the next day / the day after Teaching ideas: ? Intermediaries ? Reporting verbs ? Media interviews