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Unit 16 covers conditionals and reported speech. Conditionals are sentences containing ?if? which refers to past, present, and future possibilities. There are two clauses: ?if? clause, which contains the condition and main clause, which expresses the consequence. There are different types of conditionals. The zero conditional is if/when + present tense, present tense. This type is used to refer to actions/facts that are irrefutable. The first conditional is if + present simple, will. This is used to talk about a ?real? situation in the future that is possible, probable, or even certain, once the condition has been satisfied. The second conditional is if + past simple, would/could/might + base form. This form is used to communicate a present or future ?unreal? hypothetical situation that is presently not true and is unlikely ever to be true. Then there is the third conditional. This is formed by if + past perfect, would/could/might + have + past participle. This formed is used for hypothetical past actions and hypothetical past consequences/results. Finally, there is a mixed conditional that mixes the second with the third. The unit gives common mistakes/errors for these and teaching ideas. The unit ends with reported speech. It describes what it is, gives lots of examples, and teaching ideas.