Teach English in Jinshe Zhen - Anqing Shi

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english as a Second LanguageThe language and literacy obstacles encountered by Canadian immigrants are well documented. For instance , ?the results of the 2003 International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey revealed that 32% of immigrants have very low literacy skills, compared to just 10% of native-born Canadians? (this 10% being restricted to certain socio-ethnic grouping within the population) (Canadian Council on Learning, 4). This tendency has been apparent throughout much of Canada?s history of immigration, particularly from the 1960s onward. While it is commonly believed that, in the post-1960 period, immigrants generally had more education than native-born Canadians, research indicates that a large proportion of these immigrants did not speak either english or french, or had difficulty doing so (Folson, 44). Analysis suggests that low levels of literacy among Canadian immigrants serve primarily as the result of inadequate english or french-as-a-second language skills. Immigrants who migrate from english-speaking countries, or who finish their education in Canada exhibit levels of literacy rivalling those of their native-born counterparts (Ferrer, 19-20). Literacy skills have been shown to have a significant impact on earnings. Immigrants from english-speaking countries, where educational institutions are similar to those in Canada, are more likely to work in their chosen professions than immigrants from non-english-speaking nations (Ferrer, 23-26). There are a number of reasons for this observed trend. Immigrants from non-english-speaking countries who lack english literacy skills may have difficulty in producing documentation (Canadian Council on Learning, 4). At the same time, lack of knowledge of one of Canada?s official languages has been demonstrated to deter an employer from hiring immigrants, even if it has not stood in the way of professional/trades credential recognition; discrimination may be at play (Ferrer, 23-26). As previously noted, levels of literacy have even been demonstrated to influence the decisions of immigrants to pursue post-immigration education (Folson, 44). The need for language training for immigrants has become increasingly important in light of the growing shift in sources of Canadian immigration from english-speaking to predominantly non-english speaking countries. Despite this reality, no national standardized assessment framework existed for evaluating the language proficiency of adult immigrants (and refugees) who were to become Canadian citizens in either of the country?s official languages, or the effectiveness of language service providers (unlike in the public school system, where grade levels exist and provincial education ministries establish standards and outcomes through curricula). As such, and given that levels and outcomes in adult second language education varied among newcomers, second language learners had to be continually reassessed if they transferred from one language service provider to another (Gibb, 319). Bibliography Canadian Council on Learning, "Lessons in Learning." More Education, Less Employment: Immigrants and the Labour Market 30 Oct 2008 1-8. Web.14 Aug 2009. . Ferrer, Ana. "The Effect of Literacy on Immigrants Earnings." Departments of Economics: UBC 01 Aug 2005 Web.14 Aug 2009. . Folson, Rose Baaba. Calculated Kindness: Global restructuring, Immigration and Settlement in Canada. 1. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 2004. Print. Gibb, Tara L.. "Bridging Canadian Adult Second Language Education and Essential Skills Policies: Approach With Caution." Adult Education Quarterly 58:4(2008): 318-344. Print.