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Classroom Management Effective classroom management is essential to get an effective learning. Classroom management refers to arrangements made by the teacher to establish and maintain a good learning environment. 1. Communicating with students The communication between the teacher and their students is an essential element to get effective teaching and learning in the class, especially in a second language. Clear and effective communication includes not only delivering but also receiving information, this is, listening, observation, etc. It is not just about communication between teachers and pupils but also between pupils. Pupils can learn from communicating with each other, e.g. through discussion or by talking about a task. It is important that the teachers improve their communication skills as their responses to students in any classroom situation influence the long-term relationship with the class. Gaining attention The teacher must establish procedures for gaining pupils? attention at the beginning of a lesson and also when they want students to pay attention again after they have started an activity. The teacher must make sure that all pupils can properly see him/her and hear their instructions. Also they must wait for students to be quiet and do not speak until there is silence. Once the teacher is talking, it is not recommended to move around as it distracts pupils. Voice The teachers can alter the volume, projection, pitch, speed, tone, clarity and expressiveness of their voice to use it more effectively and to get impact to what to say. It is better to alter projection rather than volume as loud teachers have loud classes; if the teachers shout too much, they may get into the habit of shouting all the time. Language used in the class In order to develop pupils? language skills, a teacher?s language must be accessible for all students. There is no point in talking to pupils in a language they do not understand. Enthusiasm Teachers? enthusiasm for the language is infectious to students. The enthusiasm should be sustained throughout a lesson and in relation to each activity- not only when the teacher is presenting material but also when they are commenting on a pupil?s work. Confidence Pupils prefer the security of a confident teacher. Although the key to confident self-presentation is to be well planned, without the benefit of experience, plans may not work. Caring Caring teachers know pupils by name, remember their work, problems and progress from previous lessons and are prepared to take time to listen to them and talk about personal things as well as work. They show a real sensitivity to pupils? individual needs. Good communication is essential for developing good relationships with pupils, a positive classroom atmosphere and effective teaching and learning. 2. Motivating students Pupils? motivation to learn is a result of a number of factors, including class atmosphere, past experiences, teachers, gender, future expectations, family background, culture, economic status and class, etc. The central aim for teachers is to create a motivational atmosphere that helps to stimulate pupils to learn. There are a range of techniques to increase pupils? motivation to learn: ? Rewarding appropriate behaviour or effort in class ? Treating each pupil as an individual ? Showing enthusiasm for the language and teaching in general ? Providing quick feedback by marking work promptly Some of the most important factors that influence pupils? motivation to learn are success (personal achievement), rewards, praise, punishment (to best effect) and feedback from the teacher. Different motivation techniques are appropriate and effective in different situations, for example, students of different ages respond differently to motivation, reward, punishment or feedback. Pupils certainly need to feel they are individuals, with their needs and interests taken into account, rather than being a member of a group. 3. students? behaviour The teacher may experience several behaviour problems in the classroom. These problems might be caused by boredom in the class, bad rapport, family or personal problems, low self-esteem, overcrowded class, etc. The teacher could prevent behaviour problems by: ? being punctual so as to set an example for students ? being well prepared to deliver the lesson ? helping and supporting the weaker students ? establishing close and good rapport with all students ? being professional, objective and fair with the class ? providing quick feedback by marking work promptly ? respecting students If behaviour problems arise, the teacher should react as soon as possible, so as to prevent it from getting worse. For example, if the teacher notices a student starting to misbehave or disrupt the others, they can stop the class and look at the student. The teacher can also give that student a task to do such as handing books out. It is definitely better to prevent than solving problems. The teacher should also be objective and focus on the problem and not the student to solve the problem. They should keep calm and use the school?s protocol. If the problem becomes uncontrollable, the teacher should ask for help, for example, teachers close to the classroom. In conclusion, the most important aspects to create and maintain a good learning environment in the classroom are establishing a good communication with students, encouraging students? motivation and keeping discipline in the classroom.